Assured Resilient Hybrid Adaptive Networks (ARHAN)

Creating and or maintaining superiority in all military domains is even for superpowers hard to achieve and most cases unaffordable. However, the one who is capable of stacking up the capabilities of all the domains in a coordinated way and moves fastest through the OODA loop beats their opponent by acting first and changing the situation for an adversary.

Communication, interoperability and extract timely actionable information from haystack of data are key for effective multidomain operations.

Due to technological developments and the fact that more and more sensors are being added to the ‘tactical edge’, data usage in a multi-domain and coalition environment continues to grow exponentially. This has major consequences for networks, radios, bandwidth, frequencies and interoperability of communication and information systems. The consequences of this development are not completely realized at all levels.

Our drive is to make our customers more effective and our focus is on the end users, sharing experiences, as well as informing them about the latest state of technology in the field of C5ISR, robotics and sensors. With the motto: doing and experiencing together provides insight into the possibilities and limitations of existing and new technology; this increases awareness, creates imagination and provides direction for the future and potential next steps to be taken.

In general, acquisition projects for innovative technical equipment at defense organizations worldwide are challenging. Often long lead times, budget over spending, postponement, skeptical end users and the equipment is often outdated when commissioned.

Description

Optimizing the OODA Loop in a multidomain environment with Assured Resilient Hybrid Adaptive Networks (ARHAN)

1. Introduction

Creating and or maintaining superiority in all military domains is even for superpowers hard to achieve and most cases unaffordable. However, the one who is capable of stacking up the capabilities of all the domains in a coordinated way and moves fastest through the OODA loop beats their opponent by acting first and changing the situation for an adversary.

Communication, interoperability and extract timely actionable information from haystack of data are key for effective multidomain operations.

Due to technological developments and the fact that more and more sensors are being added to the ‘tactical edge’, data usage in a multi-domain and coalition environment continues to grow exponentially. This has major consequences for networks, radios, bandwidth, frequencies and interoperability of communication and information systems. The consequences of this development are not completely realized at all levels.

Our drive is to make our customers more effective and our focus is on the end users, sharing experiences, as well as informing them about the latest state of technology in the field of C5ISR, robotics and sensors. With the motto: doing and experiencing together provides insight into the possibilities and limitations of existing and new technology; this increases awareness, creates imagination and provides direction for the future and potential next steps to be taken.

In general, acquisition projects for innovative technical equipment at defense organizations worldwide are challenging. Often long lead times, budget over spending, postponement, skeptical end users and the equipment is often outdated when commissioned.

To create better customer outcomes BSS, with other partners under initiative of Viasat are working closely together with industry experts on proposals to increase procurement agility, reduced risk and to deliver mission capabilities early and cheaper.

Important starting points are:

  • Open architecture led by MOD standards to allow modular integrated solutions to be provided
  • A vendor independent approach that allows competition outside of incumbents
  • With a focus on balance of assessment toward technology readiness in conjunction with military hardening by design.

In another white paper we will explain more and further elaborate on our proposals to increased procurement agility to deliver mission capability early and cheaper.

BSS is convinced that:

There are technologies, (market/industry) standards and suppliers that can considerably simplify interoperability in the network and C2 applications which can reduce investment in middleware and system integration.

The concepts, solutions, products and vendors mentioned in this paper are examples and not an exhaustive list. With some of the vendors BSS has a commercial relation and to orchestrate solutions that fits the end users’ requirements we are open to cooperate with others.

Key elements of this paper are the following:

  • Multi bearer resilient network from Brigade to Sub-Unit and dispersed platforms
  • Dispersed and Secure Wireless HQ operations
  • Tactical cloud based services at the deployed HQ
  • Tactical applications for integrated voice and data services
  • COP and SSA Dashboard Visualization
  • Battlespace Cybersecurity Operations – Network and Cyber Dashboard Visualization
  • MCC-DCC Digital Fires

2. Minimum Viable Product (MVP) Solution Description

The need to remain fully connected during high tempo maneuver tactical operations, and the ability to ‘reach back’ to deployed higher HQs, or into the strategic cloud will be key to enabling future operational effect.

A future network must be capable of delivering stable, resilient and high capacity bandwidth to any part of the battlefield as the ‘tactical edge’ becomes increasingly blurred. It must also be capable of connecting current and future multi-domain tactical information systems via a flexible and dependable transport network. Critically, it must be capable of connecting those deployed tactical units and systems to the deployed and dispersed HQ formations that are supporting and commanding them.

In order to achieve this fully integrated heterogeneous connected environment we must focus on the integration of three common and currently understood network capabilities in order to develop a fused network approach:

  • Upper Tactical Internet (Upper TI) – This is the network that provides the high capacity deployed internet connectivity for all other sub systems and networks. It should be envisaged as a high capacity Wide Area Network that enables deployed formations and users to access strategic or in-theatre voice and data services and interoperable systems. It is bearer agnostic, provides dispersed connectivity and has an active network management and cybersecurity capability.
  • Lower Tactical Internet (Lower TI) – This is the network that supports a multitude of tactical systems, usually low throughput and highly mobile. These sub-systems use the Upper TI as a transport network to remain connected to other Lower TI systems and networks across the battlespace.
  • Dispersed and Secure Wireless HQ (SWHQ) – This is the deployed C3 domain which supports deployed units in both centralized and decentralized command and control states. It is capable of connecting and enabling multi-domain systems, for both OpCIS and TacCIS, and is highly agile. This system is designed to support dispersed HQ or CP functions to increase maneuverability and survivability.

2.1 Operational Capability

In a contested, congested, and varying terrain environment, continuous and assured network access is critical to leverage investments in battlefield sensors, real-time Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) in order to maintain information dominance against our adversaries. Currently, maintaining that level of resilient network requires much manual setup and human intervention and typically delivers suboptimal performance based on the network operator or users’ level of knowledge and understanding of the holistic network environment. Communications can be impacted by topography, weather, radio frequency (RF) interference (noisy environment), cyber-attack or adversary EW attack, and human driven network management can be suboptimal for routing around network deficiencies and inefficiencies.

A brigade will substantially rely on robust communications to support Manned Un-Manned Teaming (MUM-T), Command and Control (C2), sensing including sensor data collection, Position Location Information (PLI), fires/Cursor-on-Target (CoT), real-time video, image recognition, bio-monitoring and other various ISR data needs for Line of Sight (LOS) and Beyond LOS (BLOS) engagements. The ‘end-to end’ networks of networks could have one or more Tactical SATCOM (TACSAT), high-capacity SATCOM, tactical radio, high-density and high-capacity Mobile Ad-Hoc Networking (MANET), or Direct Line of Sight (DLOS) connections available depending upon its mission and environment.

Our ARHAN solution enables Service based integration with an end-to-end managed, optimized, and resilient network centered on Automated Multi-bearer resilience with SDN Bonding/Routing; Network Management, Monitoring, and Visualization; Converged Compute, and Tactical Radio Gateway platforms. This will provide a rapidly deployable integrated communication platform for commanders to be able to sense, shoot, move, and communicate anytime and anywhere during operations. The following sections provide an overview of the each of the components of our ARHAN solution.

2.1.1 Beyond Line of Sight Satcom

Overview Beyond line of sight SATCOM – Hybrid Adaptive Network (HAN)

The vision for HAN is that it “will provide an operationally effective, affordable, resilient, and secure satellite communications architecture that supports global mission priorities and is adaptable to rapidly changing requirements, technologies, and threats.”

HAN is to provide satellite communications capabilities “in order to support joint warfighters across the full spectrum of conflict, in CDO [contested, degraded and operationally-limited environments] and tactically-relevant timelines”.

SATCOM suppliers can currently offer simultaneous connectivity on multiple networks, and these networks span different frequency bands, orbits and waveforms – demonstrating that the HAN can serve as the foundation for all-domain operations providing warfighters with a scheme of maneuver, enhanced situational awareness and significantly improved resilience that will help warfighters maintain a tactical advantage across the battlespace. The ability to roam across layers of networks is not only a deterrent but a fundamental enabler for decisive operations in CDO environments.

CDO environments look to be a priority for military customers, as the vision says that we “must move faster than our adversaries to ensure warfighters receive the operational benefits of a SATCOM enterprise capable of delivering SATCOM effects in CDO environments.”

Commercial satellite companies are to be a key piece of the goal to improve network agility.

New constellation will be a game-changer for DoD and our allies. Military operations are planned based on limited capacity and potential interference but imagine an operational environment in which warfighters are not bandwidth constrained. The new constellations will provide global coverage and advanced resilience features able to deliver more than 3TB [three terabits per second] of capacity to users anywhere in the world.  So all users will be able to double or triple their operational use cases and even the users lowest on the priority list will still be provided assured communications when and where they need it.

A HAN multi-network approach and a service-based model of service could permit a significant DoD enhancement of “a range of capabilities providing the warfighter with affordable, resilient options on demand”. These hybrid managed service architectures offer insight to military leaders looking to transition to a managed service-based model and validate the enhanced performance, resilience, affordability and security advantages of SATCOM-as-a-Service business models that have been and are continuously evolving and improving to incorporate new, higher performance satellite networks as they become available and to better match the customer (user) demand for higher performance and affordability.”

A network of layers is a force multiplier that increases SATCOM resilience and deterrence. By being able to roam across multiple networks (government and commercial) and orbital regimes, warfighters will be able to leverage specific capabilities or advantages needed to successfully execute their mission. LEOs may provide some advantages in specific operations while GEOs may provide better capabilities in others, but the ability for warfighters to easily roam among networks and orbital regimes in a single SATCOM enterprise will be key to enhancing mission effectiveness and maintaining superiority in space.

Multi Mission Terminal (MMT)

This multiband capable SATCOM terminal delivers IP-based network services over X-, Ku-, commercial Ka-, and military Ka-bands, and is ready for operation with high-capacity satellite service enabling secure and resilient communications, in both benign and contested environments.

Deployment

The SWaP makes the MMT the ideal solution to provide a network backbone and reach back capability for a light/agile Brigade deployment. It enables the capability to be deployed to the edge of the battlefield. Multiple MMTs in the network architecture will allow for redundancy and resilience for mission critical network connectivity and data flow.

Figure 2 – BLOS architecture for high capacity connectivity to the edge

Connectivity

With the MMT deployed at Bde, BG and Sub-Unit level and in conjunction with redundant and resilient Satcom ground stations, the network remains extant in almost any situation, thus providing the necessary and critical data paths for reliable and robust communications.

The MMT is able to provide bandwidth in excess of 100Mbps (Down) and 20Mbps (Up). Use cases have shown that even with the high latency attributed to Satcom links, it is able to deliver time critical services (Voice/Video/Data) efficiently and effectively.

Multi-Mission Terminal

  • Resilient and redundant Low-Probability of Intercept/ Low-Probability of Detect, High Capacity SATCOM allows warfighters to survive and dominate the near-peer contested environment.
  • Global operations on: WGS Ka-band, High Capacity Ka-band, and Commercial Ku-band satellites
  • Software Defined Modem allows users to switch between multiple waveforms on a single hardware platform
  • Less to carry, track, and maintain Light weight and Transportable
  • Instant access to Internet, ability to tunnel back
  • Quick and easy to setup requires no special training
  • Provides Enhanced Resiliency when operating in High Capacity Ka Band Satellites because of small spot beams and frequency diversity
  • Resilient in a contested environment (ability to operate on multiple frequency bands and waveforms)

Example products (static/mobile)

2.1.1.1  High Capacity Line of Sight (HCLOS) – HC LOS and HC MANET

Overview

Provision of inter-nodal network connectivity at relatively high bandwidth can be provided using High Capacity Line of Sight (HCLOS) and HC Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET). Combining the 2 technologies enables a ‘plug n play’ configuration capable of delivering high capacity and resiliency to the network.

Deployment – Connections, Resilience & Redundancy

This diagram shows configuration using HCLOS/MANET to transport data around the network. In the represented configuration it assumes that path profile allows for LOS between the various locations.

Tethered drones, directional antennas and radio rebroadcast will be used to maximize range and mobility options to maintain high data capacity to the tactical edge.

Brigade HC LOS network, inter-connected with single link failure resilience

 HCLOS suppliers;

  • Cambium
  • Silvus
  • Ultra Electronics

MANET suppliers;

  • Trellisware
  • Persistent Systems

Tethered drone (vertical height antenna) supplier;

  • Hoverfly
  • Elistair

 Connectivity

High Capacity Line of Sight (HCLOS) is a small form factor, highly maneuverable, mil standard, best of breed Point-to-Point radio system. With low SWaP-C, high spectral efficiency, anti-jam dynamic spectral optimization (DSO) and certified link security, the HCLOS provides outstanding range (up to 25km for network planning) and high capacity (up to 450Mbps) options for securely interconnecting Bde to BG HQs.

The HC Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANET) is a best of class small form factor, self-forming/self-healing ruggedized MANET radio system. The HC MANET provides high data throughput (up to 100Mbps over 5km (for network planning) and superior on-vehicle mobility performance.

The proposed HCLOS/HC MANET ’plug and play’ configuration presents and agile, low SWaP solution with significant training and management overhead benefits.

2.1.1.2  HCLOS – Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC)

A Free Space Optical Communication link is shown within the Figure 3 configuration. The solution is in development and, if available, could be demonstrated as a proof of concept between Bde HQ and a BG HQ.

Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) is a non-electro-magnetic line of sight technology, to wirelessly transmit video, voice and data at high speeds of up to 20 Gbps. A single link can cover distances up to 20 km. The effective range may be increased by relaying links. Solutions can be used to provide fiber backhaul, rapidly extend the existing architecture, and create local area networks. FSOC does not require right of way permits or spectrum licenses. Data is transmitted using eye safe lasers in the unregulated infra-red band (193 THz).

The FSOC link can be link assured with for example KG 142 high capacity encryptor.

2.1.1.3 DCC-MCC Tactical Network

One of the biggest challenges is the ability to reliably and consistently pass data whilst on the move. Not only the ability to tx/rx the data reliably, but also the amount of data to enable rich services to the tactical edge. In a commercial world cellular is the obvious answer, but this is not a reliable or viable solution on the battlefield.

Software defined radios operate using the robust TSM (TSM-6) waveform, and at the core of the waveform is Barrage Relay™ patented technology that provides continuous and flexible frequency coverage and transparent IP networking adaptable to harsh RF environments. The low Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) radios support scalable on-the-move communications without having to manually change out RF bands and modules, or antennas.

The TSM-6 waveform provides simultaneous voice, data, video, and position location information (PLI) with enhanced network throughput, multi-cast HD video, flexible bandwidth, adaptability capability, and waveform portability for highly mobile operations.

Tactical radios with TSM waveform Below a number of TSM multichannel options produced by L3Harris, Collins Aerospace and Ultra that are suitable for mounting in vehicle;

Scalable Tactical MANET for Mounted and Dismounted voice and data services

For resilience, consideration should be given to a mobile Satcom feed to provide a reach back function for remote, disconnected assets. The current implementation and available bandwidth capacity of Satcom on the Move (STOM) capabilities presents a significant balance of investment consideration. Satcom at the halt (SATH) is seen as an optimal solution to maintain rich data services to the tactical edge and this concept evaluation can be proven with the on-vehicle and MMT solutions.

The recommended option would be to have all vehicles with Narrowband (NB) MANET capability with a primary vehicle having both HC and (NB) MANET. As vehicles transit as part of a convoy, the prime vehicle would automatically connect to the HC or NB MANET bubble when within range.

2.1.1.4  Software Defined Networking and Bonding

In order to provide enhanced capability in a DIL environment, we have developed a novel open architecture platform that supports Primary, Alternate, Contingency, and Emergency (PACE) management and goes beyond PACE by allowing for several network links to be aggregated together to provide a single, logical connection between nodes. This approach allocates a single traffic session (e.g. TCP/UDP/Encrypted flow) across multiple links. Packets are aggregated at the distant end and put back into correct order (ensuring high assurance VPN tunnels will operate correctly). Performance is measured continuously and the rate of data down each interface is adjusted in real-time based on network availability. This technology would allow the Battlegroup (in our scenario) to aggregate multiple disparate communication paths that can be leveraged for enhanced throughput and resiliency and supports a wide variety of communication bearers including MANET, DLOS (RF and Free Space Optics) and SATCOM.

The SDN Bonding Router leverages substantial commercial investment in SDN technology, supporting industry-standard router features, such as OSPF/BGP, VPN support, DHCP/DNS/NTP. Additionally, SDN technology has brought significant advancements in commercial network routers, including greater network visibility, planning and orchestration, in addition to features that have optimized the movement of data across networks including application-aware routing. Providing client / server bonding solution that seamlessly interface to the typical transport protocols, such as TCP and UDP, providing PACE management and load-balancing through bonding of data across multiple communication paths with status and management across diverse communication bearers. This component of our solution will take these connections and transmit data across all available links on the client application. The server application will aggregate these results back together and provide them to the intended destination. Additionally, the bonding solution can be used to monitor for and send certain types of data over specific communications links. Our SDN Bonding router is a software application designed to run on a number of virtualized platforms and is being proposed to run on the MOJO Enterprise Gateway (MEG) platform for this effort. The SDN Bonding Router will be managed through the same open-standard interfaces available in the IQ Core NCM.

 SDN Bonding Router distributes mission data to the Battle Command Systems through multiple sensing and selection criteria that enables path diversity and capacity across echelons

2.1.1.5  Dispersed and Secure Wireless HQ (SWHQ)

A Dispersed and Secure Wireless Network capability  is aimed at enabling the following:

  • Improve set-up and tear-down time of the Headquarters by limiting the amount of cable infrastructure required, subsequently shortening movement time of fielded HQs.
  • Enable the Dispersed Command of up to 25km between HQ Staff Cells/Command Posts. This will reduce the physical and electronic signature of the HQ and enhance HQ survivability and agility.

The use of wireless technology has been considered in the military environment for many years but only now with the current adversary profiles that exist is the use of such technology being considered in the Operational and Tactical Domains. There are many reasons why the world’s military were reluctant to embrace wireless technology in the past, two examples are:

  • RF Signature – The RF signature of any deployed military formation presented to an adversary Electronic Warfare (EW) capability can inform the enemy of location, size, composition and purpose of the formation or location. Emission Control (EMCON) has therefore always been a priority to a deployed formation. Commercial wireless systems have easily recognizable waveforms, so the presence and use of such RF systems could pose a significant risk to a HQ’s location and security.

However, during recent conflicts for example in Iraq, Afghanistan and Syria it has become accepted that military operations are conducted whilst civilian commercial infrastructure continues to function. This is particularly the case when operating in Urban Environments.

So an increasing willingness to exploit common commercially available technologies such as 4G/LTE and WiFi in a HQ location is becoming more realistic. The use of such technologies however would have to be carefully managed in order to ensure the HQ’s RF profile is controlled and managed in a way that emissions are largely contained within the HQ boundary or it ‘blends’ with the local RF environment, minimizing operational risk and allowing the HQ to ‘hide in plain sight’.

  • Operational Security – The need to protect deployed systems from Data in Transit or Data at Rest compromise has always been a priority. Radiating wireless systems therefore have been seen as a significant ‘eavesdropping’ risk, and more recently other forms of Cyber Attack have been developed such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) Attacks that now pose increased risk to wireless operation.

Whilst developing the future Secure Wireless HQ System we have incorporated multiple layers of encryption and authentication to reduce the risk of the user data being transited across the wireless systems being compromised.

Steps to mitigate or reduce the effects of DDoS Attacks, system interference and jamming and enabling the HQ’s ability to impose layered EMCON measures are being incorporated in the SWHQ. This is achieved by providing access to multiple wireless technologies whilst managing them automatically, without user intervention using cognitive PACE (Prime, Alternate, Contingency, Emergency) Link Management. Using multiple cognitive PACE managed wireless bearer systems in the SWHQ allows them to be switched into and out of operation to suit the HQ’s EMCON needs and to control and dictate the HQ’s RF signature in a changing threat environment.

Finally, the integration of cutting-edge Battlefield Cyber Operations (BCO) capability in the form of embedded Network Security Monitoring (NSM) Systems increase the Cyber resilience of the deployed systems, working hand in hand with the PACE Management System to manage and control the flow of user data across the various wireless network interfaces.

The SWHQ system has been designed to be modular and can therefore scale up from small compact HQ deployments to larger distributed HQ formations. The wireless access technology selected for the solution has been chosen to deliver maximum coverage in a low threat, benign operational environment through to a zero RF signature tactical configuration in a high threat environment

Managed RF Signature profile using a wireless technology to threat matrix

The solution connects HQ Staff Users to the deployed LAN via the various wireless access systems using a PACE router device. The router is equipped with three USB Modems, nominally LTE, WiFi and LiFi. The USB modems plugged into the system can be changed or updated to suit the operational need, or new technology such as future 5G or WiGig can be introduced simply by inserting compatible modems as they become available.

The PACE Router device is a compact ‘Bonded’ Router which bonds the various wireless connections together to form one high throughput, stable and secure connection between the user and a bonded server connected to the HQ LAN in the NER. The connection between the bonded router and the bonded server is double encrypted, once between the wireless authentication server and wireless client (AES 256) and again between the bonded client application and the bonded server via an IPSec VPN Tunnel.

A simplified example of the SWHQ solution when deployed in to a fielded HQ infrastructure

One of the limiting factors preventing the use of wireless technologies in the HQ environment in the past has been the need to install bespoke or untrusted/unknown device drivers onto the classified user terminals or deployed systems. This poses both a configuration control issue and the need to re-accredit the systems each time the drivers are added or updated.

To simplify this and eliminate the need to load untrusted or changing software on the various terminals in the LAN the staff user terminals are connected to the HQ LAN via the PACE router. The single Ethernet interface presented by the router is important because it means any driver software required to connect to the infrastructure (e.g. LiFi drivers) are loaded onto the declassified PACE router, not the classified user terminal. This allows multiple current access technology drivers and future technology such as WiGig or emerging 5G technologies to be integrated easily into the system without compromising system accreditation.

Ground Battle Group/Battalion TOC

  • PacStar Baseband Kit (1 each for Unclassified and Classified Enclaves)
    • PS 441 Small Router
    • PS 442 Small Switch
    • PS 451 Tactical Server
    • PS 461 RoIP Server
    • PS411 KG Sled
    • IQ Core Mgmt SW
    • 5 Bay Powered Chassis
  • KG-250X Crypto
  • PRC-117G (ANW2 gateway)
  • PRC-148C (TSM Gateway)
  • JECL Server COP SW
  • Viasat Network Security Monitor (NSM)
  • Viasat MDD Portal
  • Laptop/Tablet with APASS installed
    • GETAC Hardened Laptop
    • MS Surface Pro 3

2.1.1.6 Convergence Platform for Compute, Networking, and Tactical Radios

The above software solutions that provide network management, monitoring, and optimization all integrate into an converged compute, networking, and tactical radio convergence platform. MOJO Expeditionary Gateway (MEG) is equipped with organic, multi-channel communications and SDN Bonding for holistic operations of networking and application/data operations across WAN and Access bearers such as MANET, DLOS, Satcom and Wifi, LTE and Lifi respectively. BCO Cyber Sensors provides dynamic bearer management and assurance to the deployed network. The MEG has been operationally validated within the US Army’s Integrated Tactical Network (ITN) and Security Force Assistance Brigades (SFABs) to deliver SA across disparate radio transports. The MEG can also support High Assurance Encryptors for classified network access and a Cross Domain Solution (CDS) to integrate data from different network classification levels.

 2.1.1.7 Network Management, Monitoring, and Visualization

Our approach is to utilize an open standard network management architecture (e.g. SSH, SNMP, SOAP, REST, SYSLOG, NetFlow and RS232) that can ingest the right network and end user device (EUD) data that enables simple, intuitive, and automated tools to manage and visualize the network from Brigade down to Company level. Our assessment of the modern network, with a focus on the networking equipment (IP, SATCOM, and Tactical Radio), is that the 90% solution is for integrated NETOPS that can be provided from three key class-leading tools used to manage, configure and monitor status that is critical for Unified Network Operations.

Open Standard Network Management, Monitoring, and Sensing integrated from Infrastructure to Edge

At the HQ, the Network Communications Manager (NCM) provides a single management interface for all network appliances and encryptors. The NCM provides unified management of the deployed tactical network with simple/intuitive interfaces and controls that reduces the number of communication specialists required to stand up and manage communications equipment. This minimizes the training required to operate each individual appliance and saves costs compared to relying on multiple tools or heavy weight enterprise network management tools down to the Brigade and below tactical edge networks. While IQ-Core NCM is designed for non-specialists, it offers the flexibility and capabilities to meet the needs of advanced power users through command line access and automation from a single solution, enabling advanced IT professionals to complete tasks faster.

Battlespace Cyber Operations (BCO) platform provides open standard real-time end-to-end Network Security Monitoring and analysis of traffic (source, destination, protocol/service, statistics) to identify problems such as bottlenecks and asynchronous routing, as well as full packet capture (PCAP) and threat detection based on instrumentation of the tactical network running on the compute platform. In addition to leveraging BCO network sensing and visualization, we will also implement Comply to Connect (C2C) software that provides the ability to manage security posture and compliance of end user devices across the tactical network. C2C discovers and classifies devices without requiring agents. Based on its classification, C2C then assesses the device’s security posture and applies policies that enforce the specific behavior the device is allowed to have while connected to a network.

The combination of NCM for managing the networks, BCO for monitoring and visualizing network operations, and C2C for managing end user devices security and configuration provides simplistic management and visualization of the tactical network at all echelons. Capabilities of these platforms enable Network and Cyber Analyst from the Cyber Protection Teams (CPTs) to find, fix, and remediate cyber threats; Army Signal and Communications Officers (G6) to deploy and manage Network/Communications operations; and Commanders at all echelons to have Network Situational Awareness from the same intuitive user interfaces.

2.1.1.8 Digital Fires (Link 16 Tactical Data Link Network)

Capability Overview

Link 16 is a military tactical data link network. It is a TDMA-based secure, jam-resistant, high-speed digital communications system enabling military aircraft, ships and ground forces to exchange their tactical picture in near-real time. Link 16 also supports the exchange of text messages, imagery data and provides two channels of digital voice (2.4 kbit/s and/or 16 kbit/s in any combination). Link 16 is defined as one of the digital services of the JTIDS / MIDS in NATO’s Standardization Agreement STANAG 5516.

Link-16 enables a machine to machine interface between the Ground Fire Controller and Fires platform for at least 95% faster targeting. Partner force’s beacons can be integrated into air and ground COP for fratricide avoidance and digital target hand-off.

Figure 9 – Link 16 MCC-DCC Digital Fires with Distributed Common Operating Picture

Equipment

MOJO (Move Out Jump Off) – Situational Awareness & Communication Gateway

US SOCOM and Joint Staff J6 created a tactical Joint Coalition Air Ground Gateway consisting of hardware and software that manages the translation of Command and Control (C2) data messages and PPLI/PLI across multiple air and ground waveforms (e.g. Link 16, SADL, VMF, SRW, MANETs, etc.). The MOJO digitally integrates Joint/Coalition Air and Ground platforms by translating MIL-STD languages real-time and allows each echelon to send and receive data messages. This Gateway facilitates a true integrated air and ground Common Operational Picture.

The MOJO Gateway provides a combat effective, operationally relevant and capable system to disseminate the Commander’s intent and air/ground friendly and enemy positional information in real-time from the soldier to all C2 nodes. It provides accurate and timely Precise Participant Location and Information (PPLI) and/or PLI from a non-Link-16 network concurrently to the Tactical Operations Centre, air platforms, and troops on the ground.

  • Reduced kill chain time
  • Improved prevention of fratricide and collateral damage
  • Significantly increased and accurate situational awareness
  • Increased ISR visibility of fighter aircraft and operators
  • Integrated message translation capability that increases access to net enabled warfare
  • Ability of ground radio users to effectively join networks (with only a laptop, radio, and hand held device)
  • Significant increased mission effectiveness
  • Improved airspace management and deconfliction
  • Two man portable, suitable for vehicle and air platforms

MOJO Kit Provides C2 and Situational Awareness of the Integrated Tactical Network (ITN)

  • Network Agnostic, Radio Gateway
  • Embedded Small Tactical Terminal (STT) & Tactical Radios
    • Channel 1: Link-16
    • Channel 2/3: SINCGARS, SRW, ANW2C, IW, DAMA, V/ULOS
  • Fully contained routing solution
  • Server Platform
    • WINTAK, TRAX
  • Link-16 Network Monitoring
    • Amalgamated Remote Management Systems (ARMS)
  • Cyber Sensing Capabilities
    • Trusted Cyber Sensor (TCS)
    • Network Security Monitor (NSM)

PRC-161 BATS-D

The PRC-161 HHL-16 radio can be employed by a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) either on foot or integrated into a tactical vehicle. The PRC-161 Battlefield Awareness and Targeting System- Dismounted (BATS-D) consists of the radio itself, an End User Device (EUD), such as a Samsung Galaxy S*, running the Android Tactical Radio Application extension (ATRAX) TDL host and Android Tactical Assault Kit (ATAK) SA and Targeting software, and an appropriate cable and hub for tethering the radio to the EUD. The PRC-161 will enhance the existing SA of each asset in the Link-16 network by exchanging mission-critical information on the Link-16 network. When the HHL-16 radio is employed in an ISR or C2 platform, it will be able to extend the Link 16 signal Beyond LOS (BLOS). This will provide the JTAC greater range during operations employing the Link-16 network.

  • Provides enhanced Situational Awareness to a dismounted JTAC for missions that requires coordinating/tasking Air and Ground assets in dynamic and contested operational environment.
  • Handheld (PRC-148) form factor and size enables placement onto F/W, R/W, UAS, ground, and maritime assets.
  • Digitally Aided Close Air Support
  • 95% reduction in Target/ Friendly acquisition times for enhanced SA and Fratricide Avoidance
  • Machine To Machine Interface- Enables Direct Access to Strike, Fleet, C2, ISR, ADA systems
  • Low Probability of Intercept- 51 Frequencies @ 77,000 hops/sec
  • Low Probability of Detect (.8W mode)
  • Ground to ground Jam Resistant Voice .8 Watt = 3.5 NM 8 Watt= >5 NM
  • Ground to Air Range: >188 NM to A/C at FL 300
  • Relative Navigation in GPS denied environment
  • Self-healing Mesh Network leverages existing billion dollar network in 53 countries
  • Coalition interoperability

Datalink Objectives

Data Exchange – The MOJO, using the TRAX TDL Host, will exchange critical information requirements over Link-16 with other ground assets without making any modifications to, or negatively affecting their mission control system. Information exchange can be forwarded via L16 to other L16 players or via TRAX over a local IP comms system using JREAP C. This will demonstrate the MOJO’s capability of bridging disparate datalinks with Link-16 from a Mission Support Site (MSS).

2.1.1.9 Dismounted User

The S9 Tactical edition is based on the enterprise Samsung Galaxy S9 and features a custom ROM designed to operate within the tactical space. The ROM features drivers in order to communicate with multiple tactical radio and additional APIs to enforce security requirements. This military smartphone is enabled for use in classified communications. The S9 Tactical Edition is STIG FIPS 140-2, IP68 certified. In combination with Mobile Dynamic Defense (MDD) device and security manager, this provides a solution which is a highly secure enablement tool which alleviates Android, Knox and Tactical APIs.

There are two principal providers of tactical cabling to enable a user to connect EUDs to multiple tactical radios, peripheral devices and power systems. Both provide a USB hub system that enables rugged cabling to connect to devices and processes the input and outputs of both power and data. Data cables are available to connect to radio systems.

Example cables suppliers;

  1. Glenair
  2. Black Diamond Advanced Technology

2.1.1.10 Mobile Dynamic Defence

The utility of mobile devices on the battlespace is undeniable, but how to protect the sensitive information stored and accessed on those devices has been the challenge. Previous attempts to solve this solely limited access to capabilities, locked the device down, slowed access to information, or left open critical safety gaps. But what if there is no network connectivity, and there is a need to update map files? What if there is a Cyber-attack and device is compromised, how do you know the EUD is still trustworthy? What if the mission changes and there is a critical need to turn on the camera? None of these previous solutions enable the flexibility to maintain mission effectiveness.

Mobile Dynamic Defense (MDD) is a solution like no other, designed specifically for the very unique demands of tactical, tactical enterprise and government operations. MDD was designed first and foremost to enable the flexibility of different mission CONOPS and End User capabilities without limiting functionality of these devices. The solution works with limited and no network connectivity, has the flexibility to adjust to mission needs on the fly, improves operator’s situational awareness, and integrates with the ecosystem of other technologies at the tactical edge.

MDD is proved battlefield ready and has multiple key advantages and operational capabilities:

  1. Maintains full capability and security in disconnected environments
  2. Tactical Radio, WiFi and Cellular connectivity management
  3. Ease and Flexibility of EUD Configuration/Security
  4. Application Control/Management
  5. Sensor Fusion, Response and Visualization

Complete end-to-end Solution Provider: With our partners which are preferred Authorised Samsung EUD Reseller, we can provide a complete turnkey solution with custom ROMs, Tactical Edition, user apps pre-installed and EUD hardware accessories.

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